Navigating Choices: A Caribbean Citizenship by Investment Comparison

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Contents

Caribbean citizenship by investment (CBI) programs offer a unique opportunity for foreigners seeking a second citizenship in one of five countries – Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St Kitts and Nevis, and St Lucia.

The region is known for its stability, optimal climate, laidback atmosphere, and flourishing tourism industry, and foreigners can obtain Caribbean citizenship from investments such as a non-refundable contribution or Caribbean real estate purchase.

This Caribbean citizenship by investment comparison guide will highlight the five Caribbean CBI programs’ highlights and benefits and how they each have key aspects that may make one citizenship by investment program more appealing than another. Moreover, the appeal of each country’s passport and program will depend heavily on the applicant’s unique situation, lifestyle, and goals.

Understanding Caribbean Citizenship by Investment

Many foreign nationals wonder if buying Caribbean citizenship and Caribbean passports is possible. Although it’s impossible to buy citizenship in a country, five Caribbean countries offer citizenship programs where foreigners can be granted citizenship by investment through contributing to their economies.

The typical investment routes of Caribbean citizenship programs include:

  • Real estate investment
  • Non-refundable contributions
  • Purchasing government bonds
  • Business investment

Upon meeting the criteria and fulfilling the program’s investment requirement, successful applicants and their family members can acquire Caribbean citizenship and a Caribbean passport, granting benefits such as no worldwide income taxes and enhanced visa free travel.

Of the five Caribbean countries offering citizenship, each investment program offers unique benefits, including an affordable contribution to a government fund, property investment in sought-after Caribbean islands, or one of the Caribbean’s most powerful passports.

Benefits of Caribbean Citizenship

Caribbean citizenship by investment programs allow successful applicants and their family members to unlock a plethora of advantages, including: 

Global Mobility

Caribbean passports provide enhanced global mobility, with visa free travel to over 150 countries, including the UK, Hong Kong, and countries in the Schengen Area.

Plan B

Caribbean citizenship by investment is an excellent second citizenship for a Plan B that can insulate you and your family from the unpredictability of politics and economics in your home country.

Tax Benefits

Access to a favorable tax regime, including little to no personal income tax on local or foreign income, and advantages such as no capital gains tax or inheritance tax.

Business Opportunities

Attractive investment opportunities in these thriving Caribbean real estate, tourism, and business hubs. 

Retirement

Numerous Caribbean islands to retire with beautiful warm weather all year long and a good quality of life in your choice of Caribbean countries.

Calculate the cost of citizenship for you and your family, including all associated fees.

Antigua and Barbuda

Caribbean-citizenship-by-investment-programs

Antigua and Barbuda’s citizenship by investment program offers diverse investment options, including contributions to the National Development Fund, purchasing real estate, a contribution to the University of the West Indies (UWI) Fund, or establishing a business. Holders of Antigua and Barbuda citizenship gain visa-free travel to over 150 countries, a stable political environment, and an attractive tax regime. 

Pros of Antigua and Barbuda citizenship by investment

  • Best value Caribbean citizenship for a family of six or more with a minimum investment of $150,000 in the UWI Fund. 
  • Four investment options – the most provided by any Caribbean country with a citizenship by investment program
  • Antigua and Barbuda offers the second strongest Caribbean passport among Caribbean CBI programs, ranked 59th in the Global Passport Index. A Caribbean passport holder has visa free travel to over 150 countries.
  • Antigua and Barbuda offers the only investment option that includes a university scholarship.
  • The country limits tax obligations, with no personal income tax on foreign income, inheritance, or capital gains.
  • One of the lowest minimum qualifying investment through a non-refundable contribution of $100,000 for a single applicant 
  • The lowest corporate tax rate among Caribbean CBI countries, with a tax rate of 25 percent (tied with Dominica) 

Cons of Antigua and Barbuda citizenship by investment

  • Antigua and Barbuda is the only Caribbean investment program with a travel requirement to maintain dual citizenship status. Once you receive your Caribbean passport, you must spend at least five days in the country during the first five years of obtaining citizenship to keep dual citizenship and your Caribbean passport.

Dominica

Caribbean-passport-dual-citizenship

Dominica citizenship by investment offers investment opportunities through a non-refundable contribution to the Economic Diversification Fund or investing in Caribbean real estate investment in the country. Caribbean citizens in Dominica enjoy visa-free access to over 140 countries, a secure political environment, and preferential trade agreements with other Caribbean countries and nations worldwide. 

Pros of Dominica citizenship by investment

  • Dominica has had the highest-ranking CBI Program in the CBI Index for several years.
  • The country has one of the lowest minimum qualifying investment options at $100,000 
  • Dominica’s citizenship program is the second oldest among Caribbean CBI programs, established in 1993 
  • The country has one of the fastest application processing times, with Caribbean citizenship and a second passport granted in two to three months 
  • Dominica offers the cheapest Caribbean citizenship by investment program and cheapest Caribbean passport for a single applicant, including government fees.
  • Dominica’s passport is one of only three Caribbean passports with visa free access to China 
  • The lowest corporate tax rate among Caribbean CBI countries, with a tax rate of 25 percent (tied with Antigua and Barbuda) 

Cons of Dominica citizenship by investment

  • Dominica has limited investment options. Donating to the country’s government fund and a real estate investment are the only options.
  • Dominica does not offer one of the top Caribbean passports provided by Caribbean countries. Dominica passport holders do not have visa free entry to the United Kingdom.

Grenada

grenada citizenship by investment program

Under Grenada’s citizenship by investment program, investment routes include a non-refundable contribution to the country’s National Transformation Fund (NTF) or a real estate investment. Caribbean citizens in Grenada can travel visa free to over 140 countries with their Caribbean passport and access attractive business incentives and a stable economic climate. 

Pros of Grenada citizenship by investment

  • Caribbean citizens in Grenada can apply for a US E-2 Investor Visa 
  • Grenada grants one of only two Caribbean passports with visa free access to China 
  • The country offers one of the more family-inclusive Caribbean CBI programs: The main applicant’s financially dependent parents, siblings, and grandparents are eligible for Caribbean citizenship.
  • Grenada is situated outside the hurricane belt, which affects the Caribbean region. This makes Grenada appealing for long-term real estate investment.

Cons of Grenada citizenship by investment

  • The minimum investment for Grenada’s citizenship by investment program is higher than most Caribbean citizenship programs at $150,000 for a non-refundable donation and $220,000 real estate investment for a single applicant.
  • Grenada has limited investment options. Donating to the country’s government fund and a real estate investment are the only options.

St Kitts and Nevis

st kitts and nevis citizenship by investment program

Investors in St Kitts and Nevis’ citizenship program can choose between the Sustainable Island State Contribution, investing in approved real estate projects, or a direct investment in the Public Benefit Option. A second passport from the twin Caribbean islands grants visa free access to over 150 countries, making it an appealing option for global travelers seeking second citizenship. Additionally, citizens enjoy a tax-free environment. 

Pros of St Kitts and Nevis citizenship by investment

  • St Kitts has the oldest CBI program, which was established in 1984. The country offers an efficient and streamlined Caribbean citizenship program.
  • The St Kitts and Nevis passport is the strongest Caribbean passport available to foreigners who obtain citizenship by investment in the Caribbean. The passport ranks 53rd in the Global Passport Index and provides visa free access to 154 countries.
  • St Kitts’ Caribbean citizenship by investment program was the joint-best citizenship program assessed in the 2023 CBI Index.
  • Outside the initial investment requirement, the country’s citizenship program requires one of the lowest government fees among Caribbean citizenship by investment countries.
  • St Kitts and Nevis offers several tax benefits, including no personal income tax, inheritance, wealth, or capital gains tax.

Cons of St Kitts and Nevis citizenship by investment

  • St Kitts offers the most expensive citizenship program of the five Caribbean citizenship by investment countries.
  • The St Kitts and Nevis citizenship program is the least family-inclusive of the five Caribbean countries offering citizenship by investment programs, as the country’s investment program does not grant dual citizenship to financially dependent siblings or grandparents of the main applicant.

St Lucia

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For Saint Lucia citizenship by investment, the country’s Caribbean citizenship by investment program offers investors the choice of contributing to the National Economic Fund, investing in approved real estate, launching a business venture, or investing in government bonds. A Caribbean citizen in Saint Lucia enjoys visa free travel to over 140 countries, a low tax environment, and a high quality of life. 

Pros of St Lucia citizenship by investment

  • St Lucia offers the most flexible investments among Caribbean citizenship by investment programs, with four investment options, including the option to purchase government bonds and investment in the country’s infrastructure for $100,000.
  • The country offers some of the cheapest qualifying real estate investments available in Caribbean programs, along with a minimum investment of $200,000.
  • The country has the lowest Value-Added Tax (VAT) on goods and services at 12.5 percent. 
  • One of the lowest single applicant minimum qualifying investments at $100,000. 
  • The country has simplified the application program for the main applicant and eligible family members, with only five documents now required during the due diligence process to qualify for second citizenship.

Cons of St Lucia citizenship by investment

  • Although St Lucia is one of the cheapest countries to obtain Caribbean citizenship through real estate investment, few government-approved real estate projects that qualify as a direct investment for the country’s citizenship program are available.
  • St Lucia does not offer one of the strongest passports provided by the five Caribbean citizenship by investment countries. St Lucia citizens do not have visa free access to China or Russia.

Get in touch with a Citizenship by Investment Specialist

Our team of industry-leading experts will help you with everything from filing your immigration application to providing professional legal and tax advice. We are wholly committed to your success. 

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Caribbean Citizenship by Investment Comparison Table

Five Caribbean countries offer citizenship by investment with attractive and cost-effective investments that qualify for second citizenship and a Caribbean passport. These Caribbean citizenship programs are becoming more popular among foreigners and their family members.

The investment route to Caribbean citizenship enables you to acquire a second passport and enjoy enhanced visa free travel to destinations worldwide, including free movement across many Caribbean countries.

The table below compares the specifics of each Caribbean citizenship by investment program, including the minimum investment, investment routes, eligible family members, and the strength of each Caribbean passport to help you determine the best citizenship program for you.

Antigua & Barbuda

Dominica

Grenada

St Kitts & Nevis

St Lucia

CBI Established

2013

1993

2013

1984

2015

Global Passport Index Ranking

59th

78th

74th

53rd

75th

Single Applicant Minimum Investment Cost

$100,00

$100,00

$150,00

$250,00

$100,00

Family of 4 Minimum Investment Cost

$100,00

$175,00

$200,00

$350,00

$150,00

CBI Process Duration

3-4 months

2-3 months

3-4 months

4 months

3-4 months

Family Eligibility

Spouse, children, dependent parents, grandparents, and siblings

Spouse, dependent children under 30, dependent parents over 65, grandparents over 65

Spouse, children, dependent parents, grandparents, and siblings

Spouse, children, dependent parents

Spouse, children, dependent parents, and siblings

Qualifying Investment Options

1. National Development Fund (NDF)



2. Real Estate


3. UWI Fund


4. Business Investment

1. Economic Diversification Fund (EDF)


2. Real Estate

1. National Transformation Fund (NTF)


2. Real Estate

1. Sustainable Island State Contribution


2. Real Estate


3. Public Benefit Option

1. National Economic Fund (NEF)


2. Real Estate


3. Business Investment

 

4. Government Bonds

Additional Fees (single applicant)

Processing fee (NDF/RE): $30,000;




Due Diligence fee: $7,500;


Passport fee: $300

Processing fee $1,000;



Government fee (RE): $25,000;


Due Diligence fee: $7,500;


Passport fee: $500;


Interview fee: $1,000;


Certificate of Naturalization fee: $250

Application fee: $1,500;


Government fee (RE): $50,000;


Due Diligence fee: $5,000; 


Processing fee: $1,500;


Interview fee: $1,000

Application form: $250;


Due Diligence fee: $10,000;


Passport fee: $350;


Government Application fee (for RE and PBO): $25,000

Processing fee (NEF/Biz): $2,000;


Due Diligence fee: $7,500;


Passport fee: $500;


Government fee (RE): $30,000;



Government fee (Biz): $50,000 (solo) or $75,000 (joint);


Government fee (Bonds): $50,000

Residency Requirements

One-time minimum 5-day stay in first 5 years to retain passport

None

None

None

None

Interview

Virtual interview

Virtual interview

Virtual interview (automated)

Virtual or in-person Interview

Virtual or in-person interview

Which Caribbean citizenship by investment program is right for you?

Caribbean-countries-real-estate-investment

There is no best Caribbean citizenship by investment program. Each person’s situation is unique; what works for one may not apply to the other. As such, individual circumstances and motivations must be considered. All Caribbean countries that offer citizenship and a second passport have unique benefits, and the Caribbean country you choose for your second citizenship will depend on your current situation and future plans.  

Do you want the least expensive option? 

Dominica has the cheapest overall investment for a single applicant, with a non-refundable investment option of $100,000. In contrast, Antigua and Barbuda’s Caribbean citizenship program offers the cheapest investment route for a family of four, with an overall investment requirement of around $150,000.

It is also worth investigating the additional fees required by the citizenship by investment unit for each program to see which Caribbean passport program is more affordable overall. 

Do you have a large family? 

Besides Antigua and Barbuda having the cheapest investment option for a family of five or more, with a donation of $125,000 to the National Development Fund, excluding government fees, it’s also one of the most inclusive. Antigua and Barbuda and Grenada offer the most family-inclusive Caribbean passport by investment programs, granting eligibility to parents, grandparents, and siblings of the main applicant. 

Do you want to choose from a variety of investment options?  

If getting a return on your investment is a priority next to obtaining citizenship, you may prefer an investment route that ensures a future recovery. That may be rental income, a resale at equal or higher value, bond redemption, or other such future yield. Select one of the following: 

  • The real estate investment option in any of the five countries  
  • The five-year government bonds option from St Lucia 
  • The business enterprise investment in Antigua or St Lucia 
  • The University of the West Indies Fund in Antigua, which includes a one-year tuition-only scholarship for one family member. This is a different return on investment, but at least you get something in return. 

Are you looking for a route to the US E-2 investor visa? 

Grenada is the only Caribbean country whose citizens are eligible to apply for this visa, which allows you to invest in and work for a US company. However, successful applicants of Grenada’s citizenship by investment program must reside in Grenada for two years before applying for the E-2 visa. 

Which Caribbean country is best?

When working with Global Citizen Solutions, you will benefit from the following:

Each Caribbean country has its own particular set of advantages, which may be derived from its inherent qualities or specific Caribbean CBI program.

Get in touch with a Caribbean Citizenship by Investment Specialist

Our team of industry-leading Caribbean citizenship by investment experts will help you with everything from filing your Caribbean immigration application to providing professional legal and tax advice. We are wholly committed to your success in obtaining dual citizenship and a Caribbean passport.

Why work with Global Citizen Solutions?

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When working with Global Citizen Solutions, you will benefit from the following:

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Frequently Asked Questions about Caribbean Citizenship Programs

Five Caribbean countries offer citizenship by investment programs, but determining the best Caribbean citizenship program will ultimately depend on the applicant‘s individual needs and goals. However, arguably, the Dominica citizenship by investment program may be the best among Caribbean citizenship programs because it combines international reputation, low investment threshold, and a short timeline to receiving a second passport.

The cheapest investment option to obtain citizenship in the Caribbean islands for a single applicant is $100,000 in Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, or St Lucia. Dominica has the cheapest overall citizenship by investment program when accounting for applicable due diligence and administration fees.

The easiest Caribbean passport to get varies based on individual circumstances and the specific requirements of each Caribbean Citizenship by Investment Unit. Generally, Antigua and Barbuda and Dominica Caribbean citizenship programs have lower investment thresholds, making them potentially more accessible. St Lucia’s citizenship program has been simplified by requiring less documents during the application process.

Dominica’s citizenship by investment program has one of the fastest citizenship by investment processing times, taking two to three months for completion. However, the fastest Caribbean passport to get varies among the five Caribbean citizenship by investment programs.

According to the Global Passport Index, the best Caribbean passport by investment among the five countries offering CBI programs is St Kitts and Nevis, which ranks 53rd, followed by Antigua and Barbuda at 59th.

Between 2024 and 2024, Caribbean citizenship by investment programs have experienced significant modifications and reforms. A significant amendment includes an enhanced due diligence process through mandatory remote interviews to ensure thorough vetting of applicants and maintain program integrity.

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